PCOS is polycystic ovarian syndrome. Take note that it is one of the most recurrent endocrine disorders for women. Believe it or not, it is a genetic disorder which could be inherited from a parent. PCOS creates symptoms in about %5 to 10% of females aged 12 years old to 45 years old. It is mainly considered as one of the major causes of women’s sub-fertility.
The main features of this syndrome include irregular menstruation, anovulation, amenorrhea, excess quantity of masculinizing hormones, polycystic ovaries. The androgenic hormones usually result in acne, resistance to insulin, obesity, diabetes (type 2) and increased levels of cholesterol. PCOS is also referred to as functional ovarian hyperandrogenism, polycystic ovary disease, sclerocystic ovary syndrome and Leventhal syndrome.
The name PCOS comes from the usual findings seen on medical images. An ovary that is polycystic contains a large number of abnormally developing eggs present near its surface. It usually appears like small numerous cysts or pearls. Symptoms of PCOS include absence of periods (amenorrhea), few menstrual periods (oligomenorrhea). However, do note that other menstrual disorders could also occur.
The development of such cysts happen the instance the ovaries are stimulated to create excess quantities of androgens or male hormones, specifically testosterone. This occurs via the release of excess LH or lutenizing hormone by the pituitary’s anterior gland, the high insulin levels in the blood of women who have ovaries which are sensitive to stimulus or decreased sex hormone levels which bind globulin thus producing an increase in free androgens.
The cysts referred to in PCOS are actually not cysts but immature follicles. These follicles developed from follicles which are primordial. However, their development was stopped during an antral early stage because of disturbed or problematic ovarian function.
Treating and managing this syndrome is done in accordance with the goals of the patient. These fall under four specific categories: decreasing levels of insulin, restoring fertility, treating acne or hirsutism, restoring regular menstrual periods. preventing endometrial cancer and hyperplasia.
Fortunately, general interventions which help decrease insulin resistance or weight are all advantageous to these goals since they address the underlying cause. Successfully losing weight is another good method in restoring regular menstruation and ovulation. However, a lot of women find it complicated to lose weight. Experts highly recommend a diet rich in vegetables, fruit and whole grain sources.
All in all, when one has polycystic ovarian syndrome, it does not necessarily mean that one will have difficulty getting pregnant. In some cases, those who have PCOS who are infertile and ovulating might be attributed to other causes.